Type 1 Diabetes is often referred to as Pediatric Diabetes, because it often affects adults and children younger than 30 years of age. Due to an immune function abnormality, the immune system attacks the insulin-secreting beta cells on the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin in the body. It is an autoimmune disease which currently cannot be undone, therefore Insulin must be injected from the outside. However; if the dose is not adjusted, there is a high risk of hypoglycemia or hyperglycermia.
The Risk of Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
Unlike muscles, the cells in our nerves and brains are not able to store glucose in any way and are functioning with sugar as a direct fuel. If they cannot receive enough glucose due to low blood sugar, the cells can start to die off. Low blood sugar can happen due to using too much insulin, more glucose being used during exercise or not consuming enough calories to begin with. Although it may seem possible to cope with and treat sudden hypoglycemia well as it happens, there is a high risk of longterm damage to the brain and nerve cells, especially for children, if instances of hypoglycemia continue for many years. The damage to the cells happens a lot quicker during hypoglycemia, in addition to the damage possible by hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia in itself is dangerous but due to the accelerated rate of complications that can arise, it should never be taken lightly.
The Risk of Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)
Hyperglycemia arises when bloog sugar is not regulated. High blood sugar increases the blood's osmotic pressure, resulting in osmotic diuresis and a large amount of water and electrolytes are excreted in the urine. This leads to dehydration and an imbalance in electrolytes, which in turn causes severe thirst, fatigue, lethargy, hunger and weight loss. This is why polyuria and polyphagia are common in diabetics with high blood sugar levels. If high hyperglycemic conditions are maintained, it can lead to hyperosmolaremia, which results in emergencies such as diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar coma and various other diabetic complications. If these hyperglycemic conditions aren't treated quickly, they may lead to death.
Insulin doses vary depending on the amount and type of food, your general condition, exercise activity and the presence or absence of any other illnesses or diseases. That is why it is not easy for people to adjust insulin doses and it is therefore important to learn to deal with low and high blood sugars by checking your blood sugar frequently.
Diabetics are no different than ordinary people except for the fact that they lack the insulin the body needs to process glucose.
Although it is not easy to manage blood sugar levels, there are many diabetics who live long and healthy lives despite Type 1 Diabetes, because they pay more attention to their blood sugar levels and general health than non-diabetic people. Good management is important, and many medical devices (such as continuous blood glucose monitors, insulin pumps and artificial pancreas systems) are being developed to support diabetics in their blood sugar control. We therefore actively recommend to use these devices to manage your blood sugar.